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Progress and prospect of experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst prevention and control by drilling pressure relief
The paper reviewed the experimental research progress of prefabricated drilling and high stress real-time drilling in analyzing the mechanism of drilling pressure relief(DPR)for preventing rockburst disasters from the perspectives of macroscopic(mechanical behavior characteristics, failure characteristics, energy evolution)and microscopic(crack evolution), a. . .
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering, 2023 Vol. 5 (2): 1-23    DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.01
 
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  20 December 2023, Volume 5 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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Research Article
Engineering performance of flowable backfill soil based on shield muck   Collect
ZENG Changnü, WANG Zizheng, CAO Shuoqian, REN Lei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.01
Abstract ( 104 )     PDF (4242KB) ( 67 )  
This study aimed to enhance shield muck by incorporating foam agent and active magnesium oxide. The fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength of the improved soil under different foam agent and active magnesium oxide content were obtained by fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength test. It was showed that the improved flowable backfill soil exhibited excellent fluidity and solidified strength. By adjusting the content of foam agent and active magnesium oxide, the flowable backfill soil with fluidity ranging from 180 mm to 320 mm, bleeding rate below 5%, and 28-day compressive strength between 0.6 MPa and 1.2 MPa could be obtained.
Deformation warning of surrounding rock based on fractal dimension of microseismic energy   Collect
MAO Haoyu, XU Nuwen, SUN Yuepeng, ZHOU Xiang, DING Xinchao, DONG Linlu
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 9-20.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.02
Abstract ( 63 )     PDF (12677KB) ( 39 )  
Based on the spillway tunnel project of Jinchuan Hydropower Station, this research introduced the microseismic monitoring technology to monitor the deformation and failure of surrounding rock in real time, and studied the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of microseismic events in surrounding rock of spillway tunnel. The failure mechanism of surrounding rock in spillway tunnel of Jinchuan Hydropower Station was analyzed by means of energy ratio of transverse and longitudinal waves ES/EP. The fractal rock mechanics theory was introduced into the field of microseismic, and the spatiotemporal evolution of the fractal dimension of energy released by microseismic was analyzed. The relationship between the fractal dimension and the deformation of surrounding rock in time and space was revealed through the comparative analysis of the evolution law of the fractal dimension and conventional monitoring data. The fractal dimension of the microseismic energy of rock mass before the deformation occured would appear dimension reduction in time and space, which could be used as a warning signal.
The deformation pattern of soft rock tunnels with high ground stress   Collect
CAI Zunle, LIANG Qingguo, CAO Shenghui, LI Qidi, WU Xiaohui, ZHOU Ren
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 21-32.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.03
Abstract ( 73 )     PDF (6661KB) ( 60 )  
In order to study the deformation law of soft rock tunnels within high geo-stress, the paper quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the deformation value with the compressive strength of rock mass, the integrity of surrounding rock, the geo-stress & depth of tunnel, the coefficient of lateral stress, the ground water, the value of basic quality[BQ] and the stiffness of support of soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress based on the statistics of monitoring dada from 68 monitoring sections in 41 tunnels. The results indicated that the large deformation of surrounding rock in soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress was the outcome of the comprehensive action of geological conditions of surrounding rock, the design and construction parameters and other factors. Among them, the in-situ geo-stress, surrounding rock characteristics and supporting countermeasures had the significant influence. The results from the case statistics could preliminarily reveal the development level of the control technology of large deformation of soft rock traffic tunnel within high geo-stress in China. The deformation of soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress had noticeable time-space effect with the variation patterns from the rapid growth stage to the continuing growth stage and then the stabilizing stage at last with time. The deformation coordination coefficient was mostly affected by the excavation with large fluctuations in the early stage, but tended to be stable very soon after the inverted arch was constructed which also verified and emphasized the key role of the ring closure to the deformation control from another perspective. With the increase of large deformation grade, the proportion of the deformation after construction of inverted arch decreased.
Experimental study on the mechanism of dewatering and rewatering for emergency response   Collect
SUN Qihao, SHU Jicheng, FAN Sen, LIU Xian
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 33-46.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.04
Abstract ( 48 )     PDF (26796KB) ( 31 )  
Based on the self-designed reduced-scale model test device and model tunnels, the model test which simulated the emergency response process of dewatering and rewatering in different strata were carried out. Through the analysis of the flow field, earth stress field, displacement field, and velocity field of the eroded stratum, the mechanism of dewatering and rewatering in the emergency was studied. Through the study, it was pointed out that: the mechanism of dewatering and rewatering was to decrease the development speed of seepage erosion in the stratum by changing the parameters such as water height difference and seepage velocity in the process of seepage; in the process of dewatering and rewatering, after balancing the water height difference inside and outside the seepage point, the stratum could form a stable soil arch, and the soil arch would no longer be destabilized after weakening the seepage flow velocity;the permeability coefficient of silt layer was smaller than that of sand layer, and the change of groundwater pressure after dewatering and rewatering would have obvious delay phenomenon, thus the magnitude of dewatering and rewatering could be reasonably increased in the actual emergency rescue to speed up the response speed of measures.The conclusion of the study could provide theoretical reference and guidance for the on-site treatment of tunnel leakage.
Experimental and numerical simulation of high-pressure water jet cutting concrete   Collect
ZHANG Ning, HUANG Xinjie, WANG Chuan, XU Bin, ZHANG Jiancheng, ZHANG Bo
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 47-56.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.05
Abstract ( 50 )     PDF (17435KB) ( 29 )  
Aiming at the problem of demolition of existing concrete buildings in underground space construction, the effects of different water jet parameters and cutting process parameters on the performance of high-pressure water jet damaged concrete were systematically investigated through indoor experiments and numerical simulations, and the stress distribution and crack extension characteristics of concrete under the impact of water jet were analyzed. The test results showed that the depth of high-pressure water jet cutting concrete increased linearly with the increase of pump pressure, increased first and then decreased with the increase of target distance, decreased with the increase of the number of cutting growth rate, with the decrease of traverse speed growth rate gradually became larger. The effective stress near the center point of the high-pressure water jet impact exceeded the strength of the concrete, leading to the failure of the concrete. Cracks propagate along the peak point of the effective stress and continuously penetrated to form flaky spalling. In addition, for water jet cutting of strongly restrained concrete, the main damage was dominated by water jet cutting joints and surface concrete flake spalling, while for weakly restrained concrete, the damage was dominated by segmental excision. When there was a free surface inside the concrete, it was more likely to form through cracks and produce a large-volume breakage.
The evolution of physical and mechanical properties of concrete specimens under acid corrosion   Collect
WANG Hui, HUANG Xin, JIN Guolong
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 57-64.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.06
Abstract ( 46 )     PDF (7734KB) ( 30 )  
In order to analyze the influence of sulfuric acid corrosion on the mechanical properties of the deep water storage and sewage tunnel lining structure(short for “deep tunnel”), this research carried out sulfuric acid corrosion tests with initial pH=1 on the standard concrete specimens with a steel fiber volume ratio of 0% and 1%, and considered two corrosion conditions of single-face and all-face immersion. The surface pH value, mass change rate, uniaxial compressive strength and reaction products of concrete specimens under different corrosion time were systematically analyzed. The results showed that the concrete's strength changed nonlinearly with corrosion time. Because the addition of steel fiber resists the diffusion of sulfuric acid, the reaction process in the early stage of corrosion was slowed down and the reaction products were reduced. Therefore, the strength and quality of steel fiber concrete under acid corrosion immersion did not change as rapidly as that of plain concrete under the same condition. The mass increase rate of concrete specimens under all-face immersion was greater than that of specimens soaked on one side under the same conditions. Combined with XRD analysis, it could be seen that gypsum was formed after reaction. The contact area between all-face corrosion and sulfuric acid was larger, so the reaction products were generated faster, and the corresponding strength and mass increase were also faster.
Study on mechanical performance of super long cast-in-place piles in construction phase based on distributed fiber optic sensors   Collect
LIN Guoqi, HONG Chengyu, RAO Wei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 65-71.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.07
Abstract ( 43 )     PDF (9855KB) ( 13 )  
In order to study the long-term stress characteristics of super-long cast-in piles, taking the construction Project of the second building in the North District of a Talent apartment in Shenzhen as the research background, the long-term monitoring of piles for nearly two years was monitored based on distributed optical fiber sensing technology. The strain transfer coefficient of the armored distributed optical fiber sensor was studied by laboratory tests; Combined with the hyperbolic model of the pile-soil interface, the long-term load variation law of super-long and large-diameter cast-in-place piles was revealed. The results showed that the strain transfer coefficient of the armored fiber was about 0.668 and did not depend on the load and time. The superlong and large-diameter cast-in-place pile mainly bore the upper load by the middle and upper part of the pile body. The axial force and lateral friction of pile body increased positively with the number of completed floors. When the construction was completed, the transfer coefficient of pile side friction resistance was about 52.64%, and the surface pile was in a safe state in terms of bearing capacity.
Numerical simulation analysis of high external water pressure effect in Songlin Tunnel of Central Yunnan Water Diversion   Collect
WANG Xinyue, WANG Rubin, WANG Dan, XIANG Tianbing, WANG Peng, HUANG Wei, ZHANG Jianping, XU Weiya
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 72-80.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.08
Abstract ( 49 )     PDF (8689KB) ( 26 )  
To investigate the effects of measures such as grouting and lining drainage on high external water pressure acting on lining in deep-buried tunnels, the Songlin Tunnel of Yunnan Central Water Diversion Project was selected as the study object. Numerical simulation calculation was conducted to investigate the variation of the surrounding rock seepage field and lining structure external water pressure under different grouting ring parameters and lining drainage conditions in the deep-buried water diversion tunnel. Based on the results, proposals for optimizing the design of surrounding rock consolidation grouting and lining drainage were presented. The research findings revealed that setting grouting rings and lining drainage holes in the surrounding rock could effectively reduce the external water pressure on the lining structure. The thicker the grouting ring was, the smaller the permeability coefficient was, and the better the water plugging effect was. The more drainage holes in the lining, the smaller the external water pressure on the lining structure, but the safety of the lining should be considered when setting the drainage holes. It was recommended that the grouting ring thickness should be set at 6-8 meters, and the grouting ring conductivity coefficient should be set at 1/60 to 1/40 of the permeability coefficient of the surrounding rock. The number of drainage holes should be set at 2-3, which was a more reasonable design range.
Inducement and prevention technology of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush in tunnel   Collect
HAO Junsuo, LIU Junfeng, LIU Hao, ZHAO Mingfan
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2023, 5 (4): 81-92.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.09
Abstract ( 51 )     PDF (3198KB) ( 47 )  
In order to explore the main influencing factors and control methods of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush in underground engineering, the prevention and control technology of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush was proposed by summarizing relevant cases since 2010 and the disaster-inducing environment and factors were summarized. Taking the secondary water and mud inrush of Shizishan Tunnel crossing FⅢ-71 fault in central Yunnan as an example, the causes of disasters in this geological section were explored, and the evolution process of secondary disasters was divided into three stages: gestation stage, latent stage and induction stage. The methods of improving the state of the external environment, blocking the evolution path of the disaster and increasing the bearing capacity of the anti-outburst layer were put forward to prevent the recurrence of water outburst and mud outburst, which provided experience guidance for the treatment of the secondary disaster of water outburst and mud outburst.
2023
Vol.5
No.3 
2023-09-20
pp.1-92
No.2
2023-06-20
pp.1-98
No.1
2023-03-20
pp.1-106
2022
Vol.4
No.4 
2022-12-20
pp.1-106
No.3
2022-09-20
pp.1-114
No.2
2022-06-20
pp.1-106
No.1
2022-01-20
pp.1-102
2021
Vol.3
No.4 
2021-12-20
pp.1-94
No.3
2021-09-10
pp.1-118
No.2
2021-06-20
pp.1-96
No.1
2021-03-20
pp.1-98
2020
Vol.2
No.4 
2020-12-20
pp.1-94
No.3
2020-09-20
pp.1-106
No.2
2020-06-20
pp.1-96
No.1
2020-03-20
pp.1-110
2019
Vol.1
No.4 
2019-12-20
pp.1-108
No.3
2019-09-20
pp.1-122
No.2
2019-06-20
pp.1-130
No.1
2019-01-20
pp.1-126


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For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
Progress and prospect of experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst prevention and control by drilling pressure relief
GONG Fengqiang, HE Zhichao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 1-23.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.01
Abstract   PDF (32718KB)  
The paper reviewed the experimental research progress of prefabricated drilling and high stress real-time drilling in analyzing the mechanism of drilling pressure relief(DPR)for preventing rockburst disasters from the perspectives of macroscopic(mechanical behavior characteristics, failure characteristics, energy evolution)and microscopic(crack evolution), and elaborated on the rationality and effectiveness of DPR for preventing rockburst disasters. Theoretical research and experimental analysis had confirmed that DPR was a key technology for relieving high stress and high energy in deep surrounding rocks, providing a reference for optimizing the application of DPR to prevent rockburst. High stress real-time drilling test method was a more scientific new research method that revealed the internal mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst. Based on this, six development directions had been proposed for the experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst induction and the current technical conditions of multifunctional testing systems to analyze the mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst: developing high-stress drilling rig test equipment compatible with true triaxial test systems; considering disturbance factors in high-stress real-time DPR simulation tests; simulating real-time DPR test after excavation of deep tunnels(roadway)("3D six-sided loading-single-sided unloading-real-time DPR" test); constructing an analytical model for the energy evolution of surrounding rock under 3D high stress real-time DPR; exploring the relationship between the spatial size effect of pressure relief drilling and the stress field and internal energy dissipation mechanism of surrounding rock; establishing a computational model for rockburst prevention by DPR in large-scale high-stress surrounding rock based on numerical simulation software.
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Research and application of coal mine roadway oil storage technology system
HAN Guiwu, GUO Shutai, ZHOU Rou
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering   
Coupling analysis between prestress loss of anchor cables and creep of rocks
YANG Wendong, LIU Chuntian, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Xiaopeng, JING Wenjun, ZHANG Lianzhen, WANG Bingqi, QIN Hao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 33-41.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.03
Abstract   PDF (5871KB)  
Based on rheological mechanics and viscoelastic mechanics, a theoretical model for the coupling of prestress loss of anchor and creep of rock was established. Considering the influence of prestress loss when the prestressed anchor was used to reinforce rock mass, the creep equations of stable creep rock and unstable creep rock were derived, and the formula for calculating prestress of anchor with time was obtained. The results showed that the anchor prestress loss was faster in the period of completion of anchor tension; then the rate of prestress loss was gradually reduced and finally stabilized, and the creep of rock also became stable. By comparing the calculated results with the experimental results in existing literature, the curves of the two were consistent, which verified the correctness of the model. The comparison between the variation of anchor cable prestress at Jinping Hydropower Station and the calculation results of the theoretical model proves the accuracy of this research model applied to engineering examples. The theoretical analysis results established in this paper considering the coupling of anchor cable prestress loss and rock mass creep have a wider application range than previous coupling models, which is not only applicable to stable creep rock, but also to unstable creep rock. The warning of abnormal changes in anchor cable anchoring force and the long-term safe operation of slope engineering have extensive engineering application value.
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Large deformation characteristics and deformation control of tunnel in complex stress environment
PEI Chao, XIAO Yong, ZHU Zhiyong, LIU Yanping, YANG Wenbo, ZHAO Liangliang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 89-98.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.08
Abstract   PDF (15148KB)  
Taking the work area of 3# Transverse Gallery of Zhongyi Tunnel of Lijiang-Shangrila Railway as the engineering background, the large deformation characteristics of parallel adit and main tunnel under different section forms were analyzed by field deformation monitoring. It was found that the large deformation characteristics of metamorphic basalt tunnel with schistosity were obvious under extremely high ground stress environment, and the horizontal convergence was the main deformation around the tunnel. The effectiveness of tunnel section optimization and support reinforcement measures was verified by numerical simulation verification. The results showed that the deformation of tunnel surrounding rock could be reduced by reducing the sudden curvature change of tunnel section and making the tunnel section symmetrical, adding foot-lock anchor bolts and increasing the strength of steel mesh could effectively control tunnel deformation. Under the joint action, more than 65% of the deformation of tunnel surrounding rock could be controlled, reducing the distribution of plastic zones in the large deformation section of the surrounding rock. These measures had a good control effect on the large deformation of the Zhongyi Tunnel which could provide guidance for railway tunnel construction in complex stress environment.
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Engineering performance of flowable backfill soil based on shield muck
ZENG Changnü, WANG Zizheng, CAO Shuoqian, REN Lei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.01
Abstract   PDF (4242KB)  
This study aimed to enhance shield muck by incorporating foam agent and active magnesium oxide. The fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength of the improved soil under different foam agent and active magnesium oxide content were obtained by fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength test. It was showed that the improved flowable backfill soil exhibited excellent fluidity and solidified strength. By adjusting the content of foam agent and active magnesium oxide, the flowable backfill soil with fluidity ranging from 180 mm to 320 mm, bleeding rate below 5%, and 28-day compressive strength between 0.6 MPa and 1.2 MPa could be obtained.
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Numerical analysis of corrugated steel reinforced shield tunnel under complex stress path
WEI Gang, XU Tianbao, ZHANG Zhiguo
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 24-32.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.02
Abstract   PDF (6844KB)  
In order to probe into the similarities and differences of the stress-deformation law and the reinforcement effect of shield tunnel strengthened with corrugated steel under complex stress paths, a refined model of three-ring staggered joints was established based on the finite element software MIDAS GTS NX, the effect of corrugated steel reinforcement was evaluated from the angle of convergent deformation, corrugated steel stress and plastic deformation of segments before and after reinforcement, the stress and deformation evolution of shield tunnel strengthened with corrugated steel under loading and unloading conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of the maximum convergent deformation was different in the complex loading environment. The waist was the main part of the loading, and the top and bottom was the main part of the unloading under unloading, the effect of corrugated steel reinforcement was better than that under surcharge loading, and the maximum reinforcement efficiency could reach 70%, the convergent deformation and the stress development of corrugated steel with different plate thicknesses were similar and showed a linear increasing trend, while corrugated steel could effectively delay the plastic development of concrete, however, the ability of stagger suppression between rings under unloading condition was weak.
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The deformation pattern of soft rock tunnels with high ground stress
CAI Zunle, LIANG Qingguo, CAO Shenghui, LI Qidi, WU Xiaohui, ZHOU Ren
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 21-32.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.03
Abstract   PDF (6661KB)  
In order to study the deformation law of soft rock tunnels within high geo-stress, the paper quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the deformation value with the compressive strength of rock mass, the integrity of surrounding rock, the geo-stress & depth of tunnel, the coefficient of lateral stress, the ground water, the value of basic quality[BQ] and the stiffness of support of soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress based on the statistics of monitoring dada from 68 monitoring sections in 41 tunnels. The results indicated that the large deformation of surrounding rock in soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress was the outcome of the comprehensive action of geological conditions of surrounding rock, the design and construction parameters and other factors. Among them, the in-situ geo-stress, surrounding rock characteristics and supporting countermeasures had the significant influence. The results from the case statistics could preliminarily reveal the development level of the control technology of large deformation of soft rock traffic tunnel within high geo-stress in China. The deformation of soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress had noticeable time-space effect with the variation patterns from the rapid growth stage to the continuing growth stage and then the stabilizing stage at last with time. The deformation coordination coefficient was mostly affected by the excavation with large fluctuations in the early stage, but tended to be stable very soon after the inverted arch was constructed which also verified and emphasized the key role of the ring closure to the deformation control from another perspective. With the increase of large deformation grade, the proportion of the deformation after construction of inverted arch decreased.
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Experiment on influence of defects at the connection between side wall and inverted arch on tunnel structure
ZHOU Xuming, SHI Yufeng, ZHANG Limin, ZHANG Huipeng, CAO Chengwei, CHEN Zhaoyang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (1): 74-80.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.01.08
Abstract   PDF (4867KB)  
In order to study the influence of different forms of defects on the stress of lining structure, through the model test, different forms of defects were simulated, and the changes of bending moment, axial force and safety factor at different parts of lining structure were analyzed. The results showed that the defects at the connection between the side wall and the inverted arch increased the bending moment and axial force at the middle of the lining arch waist and the inverted arch, and decreased the bending moment and axial force at the vault. According to the different forms of defects, the effects on different parts of the lining were different. When there were only concrete shrinkage defects or unconnected steel defects, the main influence parts of lining structure were haunch and side wall. When the two defects coexisted, the middle part of vault and inverted arch would also be greatly affected. The influence of concrete loose defects on the safety factor of lining structure was generally greater than that of unconnected defects of steel bars. The main influence areas were arch waist and side wall. When the two defects coexisted, the safety factor at the middle of arch waist and invert decreased obviously, which was 52.03% and 32.40% respectively. The effect of defects on the safety factor at the middle of the hance and inverted arch was greater than that at the vault and side wall. During construction, the quality of concrete pouring here should be strictly controlled to ensure the strength after forming, and the pouring thickness can be appropriately increased to make it have a higher safety reserve.
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Comprehensive treatments of double shield TBM construction in adverse geological sections
YANG Jihua, YAN Changbin, QI Sanhong, GUO Weixin, YANG Fengwei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 59-70.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.05
Abstract   PDF (7361KB)  
Aiming at the poor geological conditions of water conveyance tunnel in Lanzhou water source construction engineering by double shield TBM excavation, the comprehensive methods and treatments were put forward by data statistics, engineering analogies, and other methods. Before TBM tunneling, F3 fault zone and F8 fault zone were excavated by drilling and blasting method. After initial support which guaranteed the stability of surrounding rock, TBM slided through and installed segments. Based on geological analysis along tunnel, combination the observation of tunneling face, rock muck analysis and tunneling parameter analysis, the geological conditions of surrounding rock in front of tunneling face were comprehensively predicted by using three-dimension seismic method and three-dimensional resistivity method. The principle of "drainage first, drainage and plugging combined" was adopted, the variable slope drainage system was established, the operation mode of the drainage system was determined according to the amount of water gushing. According to the characteristics of the front shield blocked, the method of releasing surrounding rock pressure by manual excavation of the heading tunnel from the telescopic shield was adopted to make the TBM out of blocked. Based on identifying geological conditions, the use of chemical grouting and cement grouting consolidation broken surrounding rock, controlling TBM tunneling parameters, slow tunneling through the fracture zone. TBM tunnneling practice shows that the adopted technology is effective and the poor geological conditions have not caused serious consequences for TBM.
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Inducement and prevention technology of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush in tunnel
HAO Junsuo, LIU Junfeng, LIU Hao, ZHAO Mingfan
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 81-92.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.09
Abstract   PDF (3198KB)  
In order to explore the main influencing factors and control methods of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush in underground engineering, the prevention and control technology of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush was proposed by summarizing relevant cases since 2010 and the disaster-inducing environment and factors were summarized. Taking the secondary water and mud inrush of Shizishan Tunnel crossing FⅢ-71 fault in central Yunnan as an example, the causes of disasters in this geological section were explored, and the evolution process of secondary disasters was divided into three stages: gestation stage, latent stage and induction stage. The methods of improving the state of the external environment, blocking the evolution path of the disaster and increasing the bearing capacity of the anti-outburst layer were put forward to prevent the recurrence of water outburst and mud outburst, which provided experience guidance for the treatment of the secondary disaster of water outburst and mud outburst.
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Progress and prospect of experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst prevention and control by drilling pressure relief
GONG Fengqiang, HE Zhichao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 1-23.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.01
Abstract   PDF (32718KB)  
The paper reviewed the experimental research progress of prefabricated drilling and high stress real-time drilling in analyzing the mechanism of drilling pressure relief(DPR)for preventing rockburst disasters from the perspectives of macroscopic(mechanical behavior characteristics, failure characteristics, energy evolution)and microscopic(crack evolution), and elaborated on the rationality and effectiveness of DPR for preventing rockburst disasters. Theoretical research and experimental analysis had confirmed that DPR was a key technology for relieving high stress and high energy in deep surrounding rocks, providing a reference for optimizing the application of DPR to prevent rockburst. High stress real-time drilling test method was a more scientific new research method that revealed the internal mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst. Based on this, six development directions had been proposed for the experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst induction and the current technical conditions of multifunctional testing systems to analyze the mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst: developing high-stress drilling rig test equipment compatible with true triaxial test systems; considering disturbance factors in high-stress real-time DPR simulation tests; simulating real-time DPR test after excavation of deep tunnels(roadway)("3D six-sided loading-single-sided unloading-real-time DPR" test); constructing an analytical model for the energy evolution of surrounding rock under 3D high stress real-time DPR; exploring the relationship between the spatial size effect of pressure relief drilling and the stress field and internal energy dissipation mechanism of surrounding rock; establishing a computational model for rockburst prevention by DPR in large-scale high-stress surrounding rock based on numerical simulation software.
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Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture behavior of rock dual-hole blasting based on peridynamic theory
SUN Gang, WANG Junxiang, MENG Xiangzhu, GUO Lianjun, SUN Jie
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 42-58.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.04
Abstract   PDF (17421KB)  
Peridynamics theory is a new meshless method. Based on the microelastic brittle model inperidynamics, a kernel function that can reflect the internal length effect of the long-range forces varies with the distance between material points is introduced. The numerical solution program of dual-borehole rock blasting under high in-situ stress state was written by Fortran language to investigate the dynamic deformation and failure process of dual-borehole rock blasting under different borehole distance, in-situ stress states and lateral pressure coefficients, and the whole process of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in dual-borehole rock blasting was obtained. The results showed that the crack area enlarges from 306.59 cm2 to 449.07 cm2 with the increase of the borehole spacing from 100 mm to 200 mm, whereas the borehole spacing rised to 200 mm, the cracks was unable to throughout which was produced by dual-borehole. At the hydrostatic in-situ stress levels, with the increase of in-situ stress, the crack propagation time reduced, the initial time of rock failure postponed, the damage area reduced from 123.24 cm2 to 32.96 cm2, and the main crack propagation length decreased from 87.73 mm to 14.42 mm. Under non-hydrostatic in-situ stress, the crack propagation tended to the direction of maximum principal stress. With the increase of lateral pressure coefficient, the damage area diminished and the directivity of crack propagation became increasingly apparent.The in-situ stress inhibited the crack propagation of rock, and the non-hydrostatic in-situ stress exerted a guiding effect on the crack propagation. In reality, the efficiency of rock fragmentation will be improved through selecting proper borehole distance and arranging the blasting holes along the direction of maximum principal stress which are beneficial to forming a new free surface.
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Optimization of ventilation mode during construction of large water curtain grotto storage based on Ventsim
ZHAO Xingdong, DOU Xiang, LI Yong, WANG Lijun
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (1): 8-17.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.01.02
Abstract   PDF (3621KB)  
Aiming at the selection of ventilation modes during the construction of a large underground cavern storage, according to the ventilation design of a large underground cavern storage, on the basis of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the extraction type, the press-in type and the mixed type ventilation mode, and according to each ventilation mode calculate the air volume according to the method was calculated, and the ventilation mode of each stage of the construction of the large underground cavern storage was determined. A Ventsim numerical simulation model for ventilation of a large underground cavern storage was constructed, and numerical simulations were conducted to study the dynamic evolution law of wind flow in a large underground cavern storage with different ventilation modes in different construction stages, and the differences in different construction stages were analyzed. The ventilation effects of the ventilation methods were compared and analyzed, and the ventilation methods in different construction stages were optimized. The numerical simulation results showed that the optimal ventilation mode in the first construction stage was press-in ventilation, the optimal ventilation mode in the second construction stage was mixed ventilation, and the optimal ventilation mode in the third and fourth construction stages were extraction ventilation. At the same time, it was verified that the effect of wind resistance, air volume and air network efficiency of each ventilation method in different construction stages was optimal, which provided a scientific basis for the ventilation design of large underground water-sealed caverns during the construction period.
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Numerical analysis of corrugated steel reinforced shield tunnel under complex stress path
WEI Gang, XU Tianbao, ZHANG Zhiguo
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 24-32.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.02
Abstract   PDF (6844KB)  
In order to probe into the similarities and differences of the stress-deformation law and the reinforcement effect of shield tunnel strengthened with corrugated steel under complex stress paths, a refined model of three-ring staggered joints was established based on the finite element software MIDAS GTS NX, the effect of corrugated steel reinforcement was evaluated from the angle of convergent deformation, corrugated steel stress and plastic deformation of segments before and after reinforcement, the stress and deformation evolution of shield tunnel strengthened with corrugated steel under loading and unloading conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of the maximum convergent deformation was different in the complex loading environment. The waist was the main part of the loading, and the top and bottom was the main part of the unloading under unloading, the effect of corrugated steel reinforcement was better than that under surcharge loading, and the maximum reinforcement efficiency could reach 70%, the convergent deformation and the stress development of corrugated steel with different plate thicknesses were similar and showed a linear increasing trend, while corrugated steel could effectively delay the plastic development of concrete, however, the ability of stagger suppression between rings under unloading condition was weak.
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Large deformation characteristics and deformation control of tunnel in complex stress environment
PEI Chao, XIAO Yong, ZHU Zhiyong, LIU Yanping, YANG Wenbo, ZHAO Liangliang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 89-98.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.08
Abstract   PDF (15148KB)  
Taking the work area of 3# Transverse Gallery of Zhongyi Tunnel of Lijiang-Shangrila Railway as the engineering background, the large deformation characteristics of parallel adit and main tunnel under different section forms were analyzed by field deformation monitoring. It was found that the large deformation characteristics of metamorphic basalt tunnel with schistosity were obvious under extremely high ground stress environment, and the horizontal convergence was the main deformation around the tunnel. The effectiveness of tunnel section optimization and support reinforcement measures was verified by numerical simulation verification. The results showed that the deformation of tunnel surrounding rock could be reduced by reducing the sudden curvature change of tunnel section and making the tunnel section symmetrical, adding foot-lock anchor bolts and increasing the strength of steel mesh could effectively control tunnel deformation. Under the joint action, more than 65% of the deformation of tunnel surrounding rock could be controlled, reducing the distribution of plastic zones in the large deformation section of the surrounding rock. These measures had a good control effect on the large deformation of the Zhongyi Tunnel which could provide guidance for railway tunnel construction in complex stress environment.
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Coupling analysis between prestress loss of anchor cables and creep of rocks
YANG Wendong, LIU Chuntian, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Xiaopeng, JING Wenjun, ZHANG Lianzhen, WANG Bingqi, QIN Hao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 33-41.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.03
Abstract   PDF (5871KB)  
Based on rheological mechanics and viscoelastic mechanics, a theoretical model for the coupling of prestress loss of anchor and creep of rock was established. Considering the influence of prestress loss when the prestressed anchor was used to reinforce rock mass, the creep equations of stable creep rock and unstable creep rock were derived, and the formula for calculating prestress of anchor with time was obtained. The results showed that the anchor prestress loss was faster in the period of completion of anchor tension; then the rate of prestress loss was gradually reduced and finally stabilized, and the creep of rock also became stable. By comparing the calculated results with the experimental results in existing literature, the curves of the two were consistent, which verified the correctness of the model. The comparison between the variation of anchor cable prestress at Jinping Hydropower Station and the calculation results of the theoretical model proves the accuracy of this research model applied to engineering examples. The theoretical analysis results established in this paper considering the coupling of anchor cable prestress loss and rock mass creep have a wider application range than previous coupling models, which is not only applicable to stable creep rock, but also to unstable creep rock. The warning of abnormal changes in anchor cable anchoring force and the long-term safe operation of slope engineering have extensive engineering application value.
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Comparison of water inflow prediction methods of hydraulic diversion tunnels during construction
ZHOU Caigui, LI Jing, LIANG Qingguo, CHEN Kelin
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (1): 32-44.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.01.04
Abstract   PDF (2645KB)  
Aiming at the water inrush disaster that was easy to occur during tunnel construction, the internal law of tunnel water inrush was analyzed through the statistics cases of tunnel water inrush. The water inflow in tunnels during construction was predicted by using the methods of long short-term memory neural network(LSTM), Elman neural network and multiple linear regression based on partial least square respectively, and compared with the actual water inflow, then the optimal method for predicting the tunnel water inflow was obtained. The results showed that water inrush accidents were more likely to occur in shallow-buried, long tunnels and extra-long tunnels, and in fault, karst and soluble rock strata. By comparing the prediction results of three different models with the water inflow during tunnel construction, the LSTM model had higher accuracy in predicting the water inflow in tunnels during construction.
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Comprehensive treatments of double shield TBM construction in adverse geological sections
YANG Jihua, YAN Changbin, QI Sanhong, GUO Weixin, YANG Fengwei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 59-70.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.05
Abstract   PDF (7361KB)  
Aiming at the poor geological conditions of water conveyance tunnel in Lanzhou water source construction engineering by double shield TBM excavation, the comprehensive methods and treatments were put forward by data statistics, engineering analogies, and other methods. Before TBM tunneling, F3 fault zone and F8 fault zone were excavated by drilling and blasting method. After initial support which guaranteed the stability of surrounding rock, TBM slided through and installed segments. Based on geological analysis along tunnel, combination the observation of tunneling face, rock muck analysis and tunneling parameter analysis, the geological conditions of surrounding rock in front of tunneling face were comprehensively predicted by using three-dimension seismic method and three-dimensional resistivity method. The principle of "drainage first, drainage and plugging combined" was adopted, the variable slope drainage system was established, the operation mode of the drainage system was determined according to the amount of water gushing. According to the characteristics of the front shield blocked, the method of releasing surrounding rock pressure by manual excavation of the heading tunnel from the telescopic shield was adopted to make the TBM out of blocked. Based on identifying geological conditions, the use of chemical grouting and cement grouting consolidation broken surrounding rock, controlling TBM tunneling parameters, slow tunneling through the fracture zone. TBM tunnneling practice shows that the adopted technology is effective and the poor geological conditions have not caused serious consequences for TBM.
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Mechanical response characteristics of persistent joint planes in tunnel surrounding rock masses with grouting treatments
WANG Jiansheng, JIANG Zhibin, LI Lichao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 80-88.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.07
Abstract   PDF (10877KB)  
In order to study the influence of grouting reinforcement on the shear strength of the persistent joint planes, the nonpersistent jointed rock samples were sheared to be failed for preparing the persistent joint plane samples. The direct shear tests on grouting reinforced rock mass were carried out to explore the failure characteristics and mechanical properties of them. The results showed that the failure modes of rock mass after grouting treatments could be divided into three types: grouted plane shearing failure, intact rock material failure and grout consolidation failure. The failure modes were mainly affected by the strength of grouted plane, grout consolidation and rock material. The water cement ratio mainly affected the strength of the grout consolidation and the bond strength of the grouted surface. The filling thickness mainly affected the bonded strength of the grouted surface. Through grouting treatments, the cohesion of rock joint surface was significantly improved, while the internal friction angle was rarely affected. The initial failure of non-persistent jointed rock mass had an impact on the effect of grouting treatments. The strength improvement of grouting reinforcement on tension-induced failure planes was better than that on shear-induced ones.
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Engineering performance of flowable backfill soil based on shield muck
ZENG Changnü, WANG Zizheng, CAO Shuoqian, REN Lei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.01
Abstract   PDF (4242KB)  
This study aimed to enhance shield muck by incorporating foam agent and active magnesium oxide. The fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength of the improved soil under different foam agent and active magnesium oxide content were obtained by fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength test. It was showed that the improved flowable backfill soil exhibited excellent fluidity and solidified strength. By adjusting the content of foam agent and active magnesium oxide, the flowable backfill soil with fluidity ranging from 180 mm to 320 mm, bleeding rate below 5%, and 28-day compressive strength between 0.6 MPa and 1.2 MPa could be obtained.
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