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Progress and prospect of experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst prevention and control by drilling pressure relief
The paper reviewed the experimental research progress of prefabricated drilling and high stress real-time drilling in analyzing the mechanism of drilling pressure relief(DPR)for preventing rockburst disasters from the perspectives of macroscopic(mechanical behavior characteristics, failure characteristics, energy evolution)and microscopic(crack evolution), a. . .
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering, 2023 Vol. 5 (2): 1-23    DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.01
 
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  20 June 2024, Volume 6 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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A review on thermal environment evolution and evacuation safety fire of metro tunnel   Collect
LI Yanfeng, SU Zhihe
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 1-12.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.01
Abstract ( 26 )     PDF (7281KB) ( 8 )  
This study analyzed the unique aspects of smoke movement and control requirements in metro tunnel fires, and summarized the key scientific issues in the research of metro tunnel fires. This study reviewed the research progress and achievements of domestic and foreign scholars in various aspects including metro train fire combustion and plume behavior, smoke temperature distribution characteristics under the tunnel ceiling, smoke control characteristics, and characteristics of personnel evacuation. It highlighted the importance of integrating traditional subway section smoke control systems with new technologies such as artificial intelligence and the internet of things to enhance section fire prevention and control capabilities, which is deemed a crucial direction for future research.
Current situation and prospect of fire emergency technology research in highway tunnel   Collect
GUO Zhiguo, LI Yixin, ZHOU Lingjian, ZHANG Yiheng, YE Yuji
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 13-24.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.02
Abstract ( 26 )     PDF (6483KB) ( 6 )  
To provide a scientific basis for emergency responses to tunnel fire safety in our country, a systematic exposition has been conducted on the current status and progress of research in four areas: the characteristics of smoke behavior in highway tunnel fires, tunnel fire prediction technologies, tunnel fire detection and early warning technologies, and tunnel fire control technologies. To ascertain the combustion behavior and smoke spread characteristics of multiple fire sources in highway tunnels under the influence of complex coupled factors; to develop digital and intelligent tunnel fire prediction technologies based on advanced algorithms and techniques such as deep learning, AI data, and big data analytics; to employ next-generation information technologies like the internet, Internet of Things, and cloud computing to achieve rapid, real-time monitoring and intelligent early warning for tunnel fires; to develop integrated tunnel fire control technologies that combine fire extinguishing materials, smart emergency devices, multifunctional ventilation smoke exhaust technology, and intelligent evacuation systems; to establish a "comprehensive-efficient-collaborative" emergency technology system for the entire process of highway tunnel fires.
Thermal characteristics of a lining of a large diameter shield tunnel under hydrocarbon curve   Collect
YAN Zhiguo, WANG Zirui, SHEN Yi, LIU Kang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 25-36.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.03
Abstract ( 23 )     PDF (11713KB) ( 7 )  
Based on a large-diameter tunnel in Jinan, a full-scale numerical analyze model was performed to analyze the temperature field distribution, structural deformation and internal force distribution of the shield tunnel in fire. A thermal-mechanical coupling analysis method for shield tunnel lining structures was proposed. The results showed that the temperature of the inner heating surface area was significantly higher than the outer surface during fire, 300 mm part of the lining from the inner heating surface was not affected by fire; The lining expanded due to the heating in fire; The deformation of the vault and the bottom gradually decreased, the horizontal deformation of the arch waist continued to increase, some segment joints were significantly opened under the effect of fire. The stress of lining entered the yield state from the heating surface, while stress redistribution developed and connection bolts partially yield; The axial force of overall structure decreased and the bending moment increased dramatically, the bending moment of the arch waist even doubled compared with before.
Experimental study on smoke movement and stratification characteristics of tunnel fire under the effect of rainfall and longitudinal ventilation   Collect
FAN Chuangang, SHENG Ziqiong, XIONG Sheng, LUAN Die
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 37-45.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.04
Abstract ( 22 )     PDF (13027KB) ( 5 )  
In order to cope with the challenge of smoke control in tunnel fire caused by extreme rainfall, a scaled tunnel fire test platform was established based on Froude similarity criterion, and the law of smoke movement, vertical temperature rise and stratification of smoke under the effects of rainfall and longitudinal ventilation were investigated. The results showed that the longitudinal airflow induced by rainfall would hinder the movement of smoke to the rainfall side. As the rainfall intensity increased, the smoke was gradually controlled on the ventilation side, and the thickness of the smoke layer increased. After longitudinal ventilation running, the smoke was affected by both rainfall-induced airflow and forced ventilation airflow. The mixing of hot smoke and cold air intensified under the combined effect of the two airflows, and the thickness of the smoke layer increased. As the longitudinal ventilation velocity continuously increased, the smoke was gradually controlled at the rainfall side, and the smoke settled to the lower space of the tunnel. The increase of rainfall intensity and ventilation velocity destroyed the smoke stratification. When the longitudinal ventilation airflow was equal to the rainfall-induced airflow, the smoke stratification could be maintained stable.
The influence of intumescent fire-retardant coating on the fire resistance of assembled frame tunnel   Collect
HUANG Zhen, YE Zhangqian, ZHANG Jiawei, PENG Zimao, YAN Zhanshuo
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 46-58.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.05
Abstract ( 20 )     PDF (21573KB) ( 3 )  
To evaluate the influence of fire-retardant coating on the fire resistance of assembled frame tunnel, the temperature field distribution law of tunnel joint components coated with intumescent fire-retardant coating was analyzed by fire test, and the influence of fire-retardant coating on the temperature, deformation and damage of assembled frame tunnel under fire was studied by finite element numerical simulation. The results showed that the fire-retardant coating hindered the heat transfer to the tunnel lining, greatly reduced the temperature peak of the tunnel lining, and delayed the time of the temperature peak. The thickness of fire-retardant coating affected the heating rate and temperature peak of tunnel lining under fire, but when the thickness of the intumescent fire-retardant coating was greater than 10 mm, changing the thickness of fire-retardant coating couldn't effectively reduce the deformation of tunnel under fire. The maximum deformation of the prefabricated frame tunnel under fire was the mid-span position of the roof, and the most serious damage was the position of the tunnel joint, which could indirectly improve the fire resistance of the prefabricated frame tunnel by optimizing the mechanical performance of the joint structure.
Research on dynamic quantification method for the fire probability in traffic tunnel   Collect
WU Ke, ZHOU Qian, CHEN Ming, CAO Ying, SUN Feng, ZHU Kai
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 59-65.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.06
Abstract ( 24 )     PDF (3286KB) ( 4 )  
Addressing the unpredictability of tunnel fire accidents, this paper presented a dynamic quantification approach to ascertain the probabilistic metrics of traffic tunnel fires, complemented by a statistical case study analysis. Causal analysis of tunnel fires identified vehicles as the principal disaster-inducing factors. Taking into account the conditions of the vehicles and the environmental impact within the tunnel, the individual fire frequency for each vehicle type was corrected. Then synthesizing above modification value with the number of vehicles inside the tunnel could obtain the tunnel's vehicle fire probability, which was amalgamated with the statistical probabilities of other incendiary events to construct a probabilistic quantification model for tunnel fires. Two empirical case studies analysis were conducted on a specific tunnel, resulting in the fire probability distribution within a 24-hour period. This achieved a dynamic quantification of the potential for fire occurrence, which provided a basis for real-time risk identification and accident prevention of tunnel fires.
Comparative study on the cooling effect of ice block and ventilation combination in high ground temperature tunnel construction   Collect
LIU Xiangyang, LUO Bingbing, WU Jing, ZHANG Xuefu, HUANG Yaoming, LI Linjie
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 66-75.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.07
Abstract ( 21 )     PDF (12815KB) ( 11 )  
Inorder to solve the heat damage caused by high temperatures in construction tunnels at high temperatures, based on the construction of the Jianshui(Gejiu)to Yuanyang section of the Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province, the temperature field of the tunnel under ventilation and ice cooling was numerically simulated using CFD software to compare and analyze the effect of cooling measures on the Nige Tunnel. Fluent was mainly used to establish a ventilation model for construction tunnels. Under the same air volume, a comparative analysis was conducted on the cooling effects of two ventilation methods combined with ice cooling under different ventilation air volumes. The results showed that when the surrounding rock temperature was 45 ℃, for the two ventilation and cooling methods assisted by ice, arch top pressure ventilation and side wall ventilation could not effectively control the air cooled by ice blocks near the palm face. Cold air was easily carried away by the return air, and the reduced temperature was not easy to maintain. On the other hand, wind curtain ventilation could control the low-temperature air cooled by ice blocks near the palm face, and the wind curtain ventilation method could reduce the temperature near the palm face by 3~5 ℃ more than the pressure ventilation method, and the cooling range was wider and more stable, with a more significant cooling effect.
Discussion on disaster prevention ventilation design for a curved road tunnel   Collect
DAI Kailai, WANG Feng
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 76-83.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.08
Abstract ( 23 )     PDF (3281KB) ( 7 )  
In order to figure out the most-dangerous fire location and the disaster prevention design for curved tunnels, the typical fire scenarios, the factors affected critical velocity, as well as the disaster-prevention jet fan configuration of curved tunnels was discussed in this paper. The results showed that: The disaster prevention ventilation design for curved tunnelsshould be considered in case of the fire accident occurred at the convex wall in the steady stage of curve. The maximum critical velocity of curved tunnels was higher than that of the straight tunnel. Therefore, the correction coefficients on fire location, curve radius and tunnel slope for critical velocity of curved tunnelswere proposed respectively. Moreover, the number of operating jet fans for disaster preventionof curved tunnels was higher than that of the straight tunnel andthe calculation method for the number of operating jet fans for disaster prevention in curved tunnels was proposed.
Optimization on the over/under-excavation of flat and super-large cross-section tunnel with drill and blast method   Collect
TIAN Ruiduan, MO Guanwang, LI Xiang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 84-98.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.09
Abstract ( 28 )     PDF (20304KB) ( 7 )  
To optimize and control the over/under-excavation phenomena observed in the excavation of flat and super-large cross-section tunnels using the drill and blast method. A highway tunnel served as a case study, where numerical models for tunnel sections with grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ surrounding rock were established. The blasting process of the tunnel cross-section was replicated, and field-measured data were utilized to validate the numerical models. Analyses were performed on the variations in blast damage nephograms, blast profiles, maximum and average over/under-excavation distances, and over-excavation areas across different blasting schemes. These analyses quantified the impact of varying peripheral and cut hole spacings, as well as the charge quantities in blast holes, on the over/under-excavation during tunnel blasting. Subsequent to these analyses, the blasting schemes were optimized. By integrating numerical simulation outcomes with field-measured data, an optimal construction scheme was deduced that effectively minimizes over-excavation: the peripheral hole spacing was adjusted to 1 m for grade Ⅲ surrounding rock and to 0.8 m for grade Ⅳ.
The influence of secondary lining construction time on longitudinal mechanical properties of shield tunnel   Collect
WANG Hongchao, HU Jun, ZHOU Yongqiang, FU Xiaodong
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering. 2024, 6 (2): 99-112.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.02.10
Abstract ( 19 )     PDF (11265KB) ( 16 )  
To solve the problem of local damage and water seepage and leakage of lining structure caused by the longitudinal uneven deformation in shield tunnel, the influence law of construction time of the secondary lining and the reasonable construction time were researched in this paper. A three-dimension longitudinal refined numerical model of shield tunnel with double-layered lining was established, and the mechanical properties of the bolts and the interface between segment and secondary lining were realistically simulated. The deformation degree of segment lining when the secondary lining was constructed was used as the construction time of secondary lining, and the influence of the construction time of secondary lining on the longitudinal mechanical properties of double-layered lining shield tunnel was analyzed through the longitudinal equivalent flexural stiffness, longitudinal deformations and longitudinal internal forces of shield tunnel. The researches shown that the ability of shield tunnel structure to resist longitudinal deformation was improved and the longitudinal internal force of segment lining was reduced owing to the construction of secondary lining. The earlier the construction time, the better the effect. However, the secondary lining load-bearing became prominent and the load-bearing capacity of segment lining could not be utilized sufficiently when the secondary lining was constructed early, resulting in a waste of structural capacity. Considering the longitudinal internal force situation of the double-layered lining structure, the reasonable degree was introduced as the judgment criterion, and the reasonable construction time of secondary lining was determined to be 37.5%-62.5%. In this condition, the segment lining deformation was within the tolerance range, and the requirements of engineering economy and structural reliability of tunnel structure could be satisfied at the same time.
2024
Vol.6
No.1 
2024-03-20
pp.1-104
2023
Vol.5
No.4 
2023-12-20
pp.1-92
No.3
2023-09-20
pp.1-92
No.2
2023-06-20
pp.1-98
No.1
2023-03-20
pp.1-106
2022
Vol.4
No.4 
2022-12-20
pp.1-106
No.3
2022-09-20
pp.1-114
No.2
2022-06-20
pp.1-106
No.1
2022-01-20
pp.1-102
2021
Vol.3
No.4 
2021-12-20
pp.1-94
No.3
2021-09-10
pp.1-118
No.2
2021-06-20
pp.1-96
No.1
2021-03-20
pp.1-98
2020
Vol.2
No.4 
2020-12-20
pp.1-94
No.3
2020-09-20
pp.1-106
No.2
2020-06-20
pp.1-96
No.1
2020-03-20
pp.1-110
2019
Vol.1
No.4 
2019-12-20
pp.1-108
No.3
2019-09-20
pp.1-122
No.2
2019-06-20
pp.1-130
No.1
2019-01-20
pp.1-126


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Engineering performance of flowable backfill soil based on shield muck
ZENG Changnü, WANG Zizheng, CAO Shuoqian, REN Lei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.01
Abstract   PDF (4242KB)  
This study aimed to enhance shield muck by incorporating foam agent and active magnesium oxide. The fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength of the improved soil under different foam agent and active magnesium oxide content were obtained by fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength test. It was showed that the improved flowable backfill soil exhibited excellent fluidity and solidified strength. By adjusting the content of foam agent and active magnesium oxide, the flowable backfill soil with fluidity ranging from 180 mm to 320 mm, bleeding rate below 5%, and 28-day compressive strength between 0.6 MPa and 1.2 MPa could be obtained.
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Progress and prospect of experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst prevention and control by drilling pressure relief
GONG Fengqiang, HE Zhichao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 1-23.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.01
Abstract   PDF (32718KB)  
The paper reviewed the experimental research progress of prefabricated drilling and high stress real-time drilling in analyzing the mechanism of drilling pressure relief(DPR)for preventing rockburst disasters from the perspectives of macroscopic(mechanical behavior characteristics, failure characteristics, energy evolution)and microscopic(crack evolution), and elaborated on the rationality and effectiveness of DPR for preventing rockburst disasters. Theoretical research and experimental analysis had confirmed that DPR was a key technology for relieving high stress and high energy in deep surrounding rocks, providing a reference for optimizing the application of DPR to prevent rockburst. High stress real-time drilling test method was a more scientific new research method that revealed the internal mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst. Based on this, six development directions had been proposed for the experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst induction and the current technical conditions of multifunctional testing systems to analyze the mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst: developing high-stress drilling rig test equipment compatible with true triaxial test systems; considering disturbance factors in high-stress real-time DPR simulation tests; simulating real-time DPR test after excavation of deep tunnels(roadway)("3D six-sided loading-single-sided unloading-real-time DPR" test); constructing an analytical model for the energy evolution of surrounding rock under 3D high stress real-time DPR; exploring the relationship between the spatial size effect of pressure relief drilling and the stress field and internal energy dissipation mechanism of surrounding rock; establishing a computational model for rockburst prevention by DPR in large-scale high-stress surrounding rock based on numerical simulation software.
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Research and application of coal mine roadway oil storage technology system
HAN Guiwu, GUO Shutai, ZHOU Rou
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering   
A review of several issues for compressed gas energy storage in lined rock cavern
WANG Zhechao, LI Jiaxiang, HAO Xuejiang, LI Minghui, ZHANG Wu, LIU Jie
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering   
Coupling analysis between prestress loss of anchor cables and creep of rocks
YANG Wendong, LIU Chuntian, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Xiaopeng, JING Wenjun, ZHANG Lianzhen, WANG Bingqi, QIN Hao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 33-41.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.03
Abstract   PDF (5871KB)  
Based on rheological mechanics and viscoelastic mechanics, a theoretical model for the coupling of prestress loss of anchor and creep of rock was established. Considering the influence of prestress loss when the prestressed anchor was used to reinforce rock mass, the creep equations of stable creep rock and unstable creep rock were derived, and the formula for calculating prestress of anchor with time was obtained. The results showed that the anchor prestress loss was faster in the period of completion of anchor tension; then the rate of prestress loss was gradually reduced and finally stabilized, and the creep of rock also became stable. By comparing the calculated results with the experimental results in existing literature, the curves of the two were consistent, which verified the correctness of the model. The comparison between the variation of anchor cable prestress at Jinping Hydropower Station and the calculation results of the theoretical model proves the accuracy of this research model applied to engineering examples. The theoretical analysis results established in this paper considering the coupling of anchor cable prestress loss and rock mass creep have a wider application range than previous coupling models, which is not only applicable to stable creep rock, but also to unstable creep rock. The warning of abnormal changes in anchor cable anchoring force and the long-term safe operation of slope engineering have extensive engineering application value.
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Basic concepts, design principles, and methods of compressed air energy storage underground caverns
SUN Guanhua, ZHU Kaiyuan, JI Wendong, YI Qi, GENG Xuan, YU Xianyang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2024, 6 (1): 14-23.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2024.01.02
Abstract   PDF (7725KB)  
This research summarized the basic concepts of compressed air energy storage(CAES)underground caverns from an engineering perspective, analyzed the basic structure of caverns and the main load characteristics of caverns during operation. On this basis, the basic design concept of flexible sealing structure was put forward, and the reliability design method was suggested to be adopted in the construction of underground caverns, which also provided the guidance and design principles, operation, and maintenance of CAES underground caverns.
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The deformation pattern of soft rock tunnels with high ground stress
CAI Zunle, LIANG Qingguo, CAO Shenghui, LI Qidi, WU Xiaohui, ZHOU Ren
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 21-32.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.03
Abstract   PDF (6661KB)  
In order to study the deformation law of soft rock tunnels within high geo-stress, the paper quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the deformation value with the compressive strength of rock mass, the integrity of surrounding rock, the geo-stress & depth of tunnel, the coefficient of lateral stress, the ground water, the value of basic quality[BQ] and the stiffness of support of soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress based on the statistics of monitoring dada from 68 monitoring sections in 41 tunnels. The results indicated that the large deformation of surrounding rock in soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress was the outcome of the comprehensive action of geological conditions of surrounding rock, the design and construction parameters and other factors. Among them, the in-situ geo-stress, surrounding rock characteristics and supporting countermeasures had the significant influence. The results from the case statistics could preliminarily reveal the development level of the control technology of large deformation of soft rock traffic tunnel within high geo-stress in China. The deformation of soft rock tunnel within high geo-stress had noticeable time-space effect with the variation patterns from the rapid growth stage to the continuing growth stage and then the stabilizing stage at last with time. The deformation coordination coefficient was mostly affected by the excavation with large fluctuations in the early stage, but tended to be stable very soon after the inverted arch was constructed which also verified and emphasized the key role of the ring closure to the deformation control from another perspective. With the increase of large deformation grade, the proportion of the deformation after construction of inverted arch decreased.
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Comparison of water inflow prediction methods of hydraulic diversion tunnels during construction
ZHOU Caigui, LI Jing, LIANG Qingguo, CHEN Kelin
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (1): 32-44.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.01.04
Abstract   PDF (2645KB)  
Aiming at the water inrush disaster that was easy to occur during tunnel construction, the internal law of tunnel water inrush was analyzed through the statistics cases of tunnel water inrush. The water inflow in tunnels during construction was predicted by using the methods of long short-term memory neural network(LSTM), Elman neural network and multiple linear regression based on partial least square respectively, and compared with the actual water inflow, then the optimal method for predicting the tunnel water inflow was obtained. The results showed that water inrush accidents were more likely to occur in shallow-buried, long tunnels and extra-long tunnels, and in fault, karst and soluble rock strata. By comparing the prediction results of three different models with the water inflow during tunnel construction, the LSTM model had higher accuracy in predicting the water inflow in tunnels during construction.
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The influence of intumescent fire retardant coating on the fire resistance of assembled frame tunnel
HUANG Zheng, YE Zhangqian, ZHANG Jiawei, PENG Zimao, YAN Zhanshuo
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering   
Inducement and prevention technology of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush in tunnel
HAO Junsuo, LIU Junfeng, LIU Hao, ZHAO Mingfan
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 81-92.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.09
Abstract   PDF (3198KB)  
In order to explore the main influencing factors and control methods of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush in underground engineering, the prevention and control technology of secondary disasters of water and mud inrush was proposed by summarizing relevant cases since 2010 and the disaster-inducing environment and factors were summarized. Taking the secondary water and mud inrush of Shizishan Tunnel crossing FⅢ-71 fault in central Yunnan as an example, the causes of disasters in this geological section were explored, and the evolution process of secondary disasters was divided into three stages: gestation stage, latent stage and induction stage. The methods of improving the state of the external environment, blocking the evolution path of the disaster and increasing the bearing capacity of the anti-outburst layer were put forward to prevent the recurrence of water outburst and mud outburst, which provided experience guidance for the treatment of the secondary disaster of water outburst and mud outburst.
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Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture behavior of rock dual-hole blasting based on peridynamic theory
SUN Gang, WANG Junxiang, MENG Xiangzhu, GUO Lianjun, SUN Jie
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 42-58.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.04
Abstract   PDF (17421KB)  
Peridynamics theory is a new meshless method. Based on the microelastic brittle model inperidynamics, a kernel function that can reflect the internal length effect of the long-range forces varies with the distance between material points is introduced. The numerical solution program of dual-borehole rock blasting under high in-situ stress state was written by Fortran language to investigate the dynamic deformation and failure process of dual-borehole rock blasting under different borehole distance, in-situ stress states and lateral pressure coefficients, and the whole process of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in dual-borehole rock blasting was obtained. The results showed that the crack area enlarges from 306.59 cm2 to 449.07 cm2 with the increase of the borehole spacing from 100 mm to 200 mm, whereas the borehole spacing rised to 200 mm, the cracks was unable to throughout which was produced by dual-borehole. At the hydrostatic in-situ stress levels, with the increase of in-situ stress, the crack propagation time reduced, the initial time of rock failure postponed, the damage area reduced from 123.24 cm2 to 32.96 cm2, and the main crack propagation length decreased from 87.73 mm to 14.42 mm. Under non-hydrostatic in-situ stress, the crack propagation tended to the direction of maximum principal stress. With the increase of lateral pressure coefficient, the damage area diminished and the directivity of crack propagation became increasingly apparent.The in-situ stress inhibited the crack propagation of rock, and the non-hydrostatic in-situ stress exerted a guiding effect on the crack propagation. In reality, the efficiency of rock fragmentation will be improved through selecting proper borehole distance and arranging the blasting holes along the direction of maximum principal stress which are beneficial to forming a new free surface.
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Comparison of water inflow prediction methods of hydraulic diversion tunnels during construction
ZHOU Caigui, LI Jing, LIANG Qingguo, CHEN Kelin
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (1): 32-44.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.01.04
Abstract   PDF (2645KB)  
Aiming at the water inrush disaster that was easy to occur during tunnel construction, the internal law of tunnel water inrush was analyzed through the statistics cases of tunnel water inrush. The water inflow in tunnels during construction was predicted by using the methods of long short-term memory neural network(LSTM), Elman neural network and multiple linear regression based on partial least square respectively, and compared with the actual water inflow, then the optimal method for predicting the tunnel water inflow was obtained. The results showed that water inrush accidents were more likely to occur in shallow-buried, long tunnels and extra-long tunnels, and in fault, karst and soluble rock strata. By comparing the prediction results of three different models with the water inflow during tunnel construction, the LSTM model had higher accuracy in predicting the water inflow in tunnels during construction.
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Optimization of ventilation mode during construction of large water curtain grotto storage based on Ventsim
ZHAO Xingdong, DOU Xiang, LI Yong, WANG Lijun
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (1): 8-17.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.01.02
Abstract   PDF (3621KB)  
Aiming at the selection of ventilation modes during the construction of a large underground cavern storage, according to the ventilation design of a large underground cavern storage, on the basis of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the extraction type, the press-in type and the mixed type ventilation mode, and according to each ventilation mode calculate the air volume according to the method was calculated, and the ventilation mode of each stage of the construction of the large underground cavern storage was determined. A Ventsim numerical simulation model for ventilation of a large underground cavern storage was constructed, and numerical simulations were conducted to study the dynamic evolution law of wind flow in a large underground cavern storage with different ventilation modes in different construction stages, and the differences in different construction stages were analyzed. The ventilation effects of the ventilation methods were compared and analyzed, and the ventilation methods in different construction stages were optimized. The numerical simulation results showed that the optimal ventilation mode in the first construction stage was press-in ventilation, the optimal ventilation mode in the second construction stage was mixed ventilation, and the optimal ventilation mode in the third and fourth construction stages were extraction ventilation. At the same time, it was verified that the effect of wind resistance, air volume and air network efficiency of each ventilation method in different construction stages was optimal, which provided a scientific basis for the ventilation design of large underground water-sealed caverns during the construction period.
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Progress and prospect of experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst prevention and control by drilling pressure relief
GONG Fengqiang, HE Zhichao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 1-23.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.01
Abstract   PDF (32718KB)  
The paper reviewed the experimental research progress of prefabricated drilling and high stress real-time drilling in analyzing the mechanism of drilling pressure relief(DPR)for preventing rockburst disasters from the perspectives of macroscopic(mechanical behavior characteristics, failure characteristics, energy evolution)and microscopic(crack evolution), and elaborated on the rationality and effectiveness of DPR for preventing rockburst disasters. Theoretical research and experimental analysis had confirmed that DPR was a key technology for relieving high stress and high energy in deep surrounding rocks, providing a reference for optimizing the application of DPR to prevent rockburst. High stress real-time drilling test method was a more scientific new research method that revealed the internal mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst. Based on this, six development directions had been proposed for the experimental research on the mechanism of rockburst induction and the current technical conditions of multifunctional testing systems to analyze the mechanism of DPR to prevent rockburst: developing high-stress drilling rig test equipment compatible with true triaxial test systems; considering disturbance factors in high-stress real-time DPR simulation tests; simulating real-time DPR test after excavation of deep tunnels(roadway)("3D six-sided loading-single-sided unloading-real-time DPR" test); constructing an analytical model for the energy evolution of surrounding rock under 3D high stress real-time DPR; exploring the relationship between the spatial size effect of pressure relief drilling and the stress field and internal energy dissipation mechanism of surrounding rock; establishing a computational model for rockburst prevention by DPR in large-scale high-stress surrounding rock based on numerical simulation software.
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Numerical analysis of corrugated steel reinforced shield tunnel under complex stress path
WEI Gang, XU Tianbao, ZHANG Zhiguo
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 24-32.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.02
Abstract   PDF (6844KB)  
In order to probe into the similarities and differences of the stress-deformation law and the reinforcement effect of shield tunnel strengthened with corrugated steel under complex stress paths, a refined model of three-ring staggered joints was established based on the finite element software MIDAS GTS NX, the effect of corrugated steel reinforcement was evaluated from the angle of convergent deformation, corrugated steel stress and plastic deformation of segments before and after reinforcement, the stress and deformation evolution of shield tunnel strengthened with corrugated steel under loading and unloading conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of the maximum convergent deformation was different in the complex loading environment. The waist was the main part of the loading, and the top and bottom was the main part of the unloading under unloading, the effect of corrugated steel reinforcement was better than that under surcharge loading, and the maximum reinforcement efficiency could reach 70%, the convergent deformation and the stress development of corrugated steel with different plate thicknesses were similar and showed a linear increasing trend, while corrugated steel could effectively delay the plastic development of concrete, however, the ability of stagger suppression between rings under unloading condition was weak.
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Large deformation characteristics and deformation control of tunnel in complex stress environment
PEI Chao, XIAO Yong, ZHU Zhiyong, LIU Yanping, YANG Wenbo, ZHAO Liangliang
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 89-98.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.08
Abstract   PDF (15148KB)  
Taking the work area of 3# Transverse Gallery of Zhongyi Tunnel of Lijiang-Shangrila Railway as the engineering background, the large deformation characteristics of parallel adit and main tunnel under different section forms were analyzed by field deformation monitoring. It was found that the large deformation characteristics of metamorphic basalt tunnel with schistosity were obvious under extremely high ground stress environment, and the horizontal convergence was the main deformation around the tunnel. The effectiveness of tunnel section optimization and support reinforcement measures was verified by numerical simulation verification. The results showed that the deformation of tunnel surrounding rock could be reduced by reducing the sudden curvature change of tunnel section and making the tunnel section symmetrical, adding foot-lock anchor bolts and increasing the strength of steel mesh could effectively control tunnel deformation. Under the joint action, more than 65% of the deformation of tunnel surrounding rock could be controlled, reducing the distribution of plastic zones in the large deformation section of the surrounding rock. These measures had a good control effect on the large deformation of the Zhongyi Tunnel which could provide guidance for railway tunnel construction in complex stress environment.
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Engineering performance of flowable backfill soil based on shield muck
ZENG Changnü, WANG Zizheng, CAO Shuoqian, REN Lei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.04.01
Abstract   PDF (4242KB)  
This study aimed to enhance shield muck by incorporating foam agent and active magnesium oxide. The fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength of the improved soil under different foam agent and active magnesium oxide content were obtained by fluidity, bleeding rate and compressive strength test. It was showed that the improved flowable backfill soil exhibited excellent fluidity and solidified strength. By adjusting the content of foam agent and active magnesium oxide, the flowable backfill soil with fluidity ranging from 180 mm to 320 mm, bleeding rate below 5%, and 28-day compressive strength between 0.6 MPa and 1.2 MPa could be obtained.
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Comprehensive treatments of double shield TBM construction in adverse geological sections
YANG Jihua, YAN Changbin, QI Sanhong, GUO Weixin, YANG Fengwei
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 59-70.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.05
Abstract   PDF (7361KB)  
Aiming at the poor geological conditions of water conveyance tunnel in Lanzhou water source construction engineering by double shield TBM excavation, the comprehensive methods and treatments were put forward by data statistics, engineering analogies, and other methods. Before TBM tunneling, F3 fault zone and F8 fault zone were excavated by drilling and blasting method. After initial support which guaranteed the stability of surrounding rock, TBM slided through and installed segments. Based on geological analysis along tunnel, combination the observation of tunneling face, rock muck analysis and tunneling parameter analysis, the geological conditions of surrounding rock in front of tunneling face were comprehensively predicted by using three-dimension seismic method and three-dimensional resistivity method. The principle of "drainage first, drainage and plugging combined" was adopted, the variable slope drainage system was established, the operation mode of the drainage system was determined according to the amount of water gushing. According to the characteristics of the front shield blocked, the method of releasing surrounding rock pressure by manual excavation of the heading tunnel from the telescopic shield was adopted to make the TBM out of blocked. Based on identifying geological conditions, the use of chemical grouting and cement grouting consolidation broken surrounding rock, controlling TBM tunneling parameters, slow tunneling through the fracture zone. TBM tunnneling practice shows that the adopted technology is effective and the poor geological conditions have not caused serious consequences for TBM.
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Coupling analysis between prestress loss of anchor cables and creep of rocks
YANG Wendong, LIU Chuntian, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Xiaopeng, JING Wenjun, ZHANG Lianzhen, WANG Bingqi, QIN Hao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 33-41.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.03
Abstract   PDF (5871KB)  
Based on rheological mechanics and viscoelastic mechanics, a theoretical model for the coupling of prestress loss of anchor and creep of rock was established. Considering the influence of prestress loss when the prestressed anchor was used to reinforce rock mass, the creep equations of stable creep rock and unstable creep rock were derived, and the formula for calculating prestress of anchor with time was obtained. The results showed that the anchor prestress loss was faster in the period of completion of anchor tension; then the rate of prestress loss was gradually reduced and finally stabilized, and the creep of rock also became stable. By comparing the calculated results with the experimental results in existing literature, the curves of the two were consistent, which verified the correctness of the model. The comparison between the variation of anchor cable prestress at Jinping Hydropower Station and the calculation results of the theoretical model proves the accuracy of this research model applied to engineering examples. The theoretical analysis results established in this paper considering the coupling of anchor cable prestress loss and rock mass creep have a wider application range than previous coupling models, which is not only applicable to stable creep rock, but also to unstable creep rock. The warning of abnormal changes in anchor cable anchoring force and the long-term safe operation of slope engineering have extensive engineering application value.
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Mechanical response characteristics of persistent joint planes in tunnel surrounding rock masses with grouting treatments
WANG Jiansheng, JIANG Zhibin, LI Lichao
Hazard Control in Tunnelling and Underground Engineering    2023, 5 (2): 80-88.   DOI: 10.19952/j.cnki.2096-5052.2023.02.07
Abstract   PDF (10877KB)  
In order to study the influence of grouting reinforcement on the shear strength of the persistent joint planes, the nonpersistent jointed rock samples were sheared to be failed for preparing the persistent joint plane samples. The direct shear tests on grouting reinforced rock mass were carried out to explore the failure characteristics and mechanical properties of them. The results showed that the failure modes of rock mass after grouting treatments could be divided into three types: grouted plane shearing failure, intact rock material failure and grout consolidation failure. The failure modes were mainly affected by the strength of grouted plane, grout consolidation and rock material. The water cement ratio mainly affected the strength of the grout consolidation and the bond strength of the grouted surface. The filling thickness mainly affected the bonded strength of the grouted surface. Through grouting treatments, the cohesion of rock joint surface was significantly improved, while the internal friction angle was rarely affected. The initial failure of non-persistent jointed rock mass had an impact on the effect of grouting treatments. The strength improvement of grouting reinforcement on tension-induced failure planes was better than that on shear-induced ones.
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